Understanding our avoided CO2 emissions simulator

April 12, 2023
Understanding our avoided CO2 emissions simulator

This simulator is designed to provide you with initial inputs for assessing the decarbonization of your business. It does not necessarily reflect specific situations and uses standard data provided by various bodies. It has been created using estimates published to date. If you would like more details, please contact us.

Here are a few details on how the simulator was developed:

Scope of calculation for avoided CO2

In calculating avoided CO2 emissions, we consider that the hydrogen used is Lhyfe hydrogen, which is 100% renewable hydrogen produced via the electrolysis of water using a 100% renewable energy mix. Our calculation is based on tank-to-wheel emissions, or in other words, those produced from running the vehicle. For this, we use the reference data of the French energy and environment agency, Ademe.

A calculation covering the complete life cycle, including the emissions involved in manufacturing the vehicle and managing its end of life, producing the fuel, and running the vehicle would be more accurate. However, studies to produce such an assessment are lacking so far. The Carbone 4 study is the only one available to date, but it only provides data for a few vehicle types.

It is important to note, however, that the more intensively a vehicle is used, the more the carbon footprint of its manufacturing process is amortized. Therefore, our calculation uses an average value.

The greatest contributor to the carbon footprint is the manufacturing of the vehicle and the battery. One avenue being studied to improve the carbon footprint of battery manufacturing is to manufacture these batteries in countries where electricity is low in carbon.

Calculating range and charging time

We regularly exchange with our manufacturer partners and monitor developments in the ranges of hydrogen vehicles as a basis for our calculation.

If you are a manufacturer of hydrogen vehicles and would like to discuss these figures with us, please contact us!

What is a hydrogen car? A comprehensive guide to hydrogen-powered vehicles
What is a hydrogen car? A comprehensive guide to hydrogen-powered vehicles

Hydrogen cars, an alternative to conventional gasoline and electric vehicles, offer a promising solution for sustainable transportation. This comprehensive guide explores the ins and outs of hydrogen cars, their advantages, and potential challenges.

What is a Hydrogen Car?

A hydrogen car, also known as a hydrogen-powered car or hydrogen-fueled vehicle, uses hydrogen as its primary fuel source. These vehicles rely on fuel cells to convert hydrogen into electricity, which powers the electric motor to drive the car.

How Hydrogen Cars Work

Hydrogen cars employ a fuel cell system that combines hydrogen with oxygen from the air. This reaction generates electricity and water vapor, powering the vehicle without producing harmful emissions.

Hydrogen Car Advantages

Key benefits of hydrogen cars include:

  • Zero harmful emissions: The only byproduct is water vapor
  • Fast refueling: Takes about 3-5 minutes, similar to gasoline vehicles
  • Long driving range: Up to 300-400 miles on a full tank
  • High energy density: Hydrogen contains more energy per unit mass than traditional fuels

Hydrogen Car Disadvantages

Some challenges associated with hydrogen cars are:

  • Limited availability: Fewer models compared to gasoline and electric vehicles
  • High costs: Expensive fuel cell technology and hydrogen production
  • Fueling infrastructure: Limited number of hydrogen refueling stations
  • Energy inefficiency: Losses in hydrogen production, storage, and conversion

Hydrogen Car Safety

Hydrogen cars undergo stringent safety testing, addressing concerns such as:

  • Hydrogen storage: High-pressure tanks designed to withstand impact and puncture
  • Leak detection: Advanced sensors to detect and address hydrogen leaks
  • Fire prevention: Flame arrestors and pressure relief systems for controlled venting

Hydrogen Fuel Production and Storage

Hydrogen fuel can be produced through several methods, including:

  • Steam methane reforming: Extracting hydrogen from natural gas
  • Electrolysis: Splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen using electricity

Storage methods include high-pressure tanks, liquid hydrogen, and solid-state storage.

Hydrogen Fueling Stations

While the number of hydrogen fueling stations is growing, availability remains limited compared to gasoline and electric charging stations. Expansion efforts are underway, focusing on regions with a higher concentration of hydrogen cars.

Major Hydrogen Car Manufacturers

Several automotive manufacturers have released hydrogen car models, including:

  • Toyota: Mirai
  • Honda: Clarity Fuel Cell
  • Hyundai: Nexo

Hydrogen Cars vs. Electric Vehicles

While both hydrogen cars and electric vehicles produce zero emissions, they differ in key aspects such as:

  • Energy source: Hydrogen cars use fuel cells, while electric vehicles rely on batteries
  • Refueling time: Hydrogen cars refuel faster, but electric vehicles have more charging stations
  • Efficiency: Electric vehicles are generally more energy-efficient than hydrogen cars

Environmental Impact of Hydrogen Cars

Hydrogen cars have a positive environmental impact as they produce zero harmful emissions. However, the overall impact depends on the methods used for hydrogen production, transportation, and storage. Cleaner production methods, such as electrolysis using renewable energy, can further enhance their eco-friendliness.

The Future of Hydrogen Cars

The future of hydrogen cars looks promising, with ongoing advancements in fuel cell technology, infrastructure expansion, and government support. As production costs decrease and performance improves, hydrogen cars may become a more viable option for mainstream adoption.

Government Policies and Incentives

Many governments offer incentives for hydrogen car adoption, including tax credits, grants, and rebates. Additionally, public-private partnerships are being established to expand the hydrogen infrastructure and support research and development.


Hydrogen cars offer an environmentally friendly alternative to traditional gasoline and electric vehicles. As technology advances and infrastructure expands, they hold the potential to play a significant role in achieving sustainable transportation.


Fuel Cell & Hydrogen Energy Association - Fuel Cell Basics

Frequently Asked Questions

What is the driving range of a hydrogen car?

Hydrogen cars can typically travel 300-400 miles on a full tank, depending on the model and driving conditions.

How long does it take to refuel a hydrogen car?

Refueling a hydrogen car takes about 3-5 minutes, similar to refueling a gasoline-powered vehicle.

Are hydrogen cars expensive?

The initial cost of hydrogen cars tends to be higher than that of traditional gasoline or electric vehicles, primarily due to the expensive fuel cell technology.

How do hydrogen cars compare to electric vehicles in terms of efficiency?

Electric vehicles are generally more energy-efficient than hydrogen cars, as they have fewer energy losses during charging, storage, and conversion.

What is the environmental impact of hydrogen cars?

Hydrogen cars produce zero harmful emissions, but their overall environmental impact depends on the methods used for hydrogen production, transportation, and storage. Cleaner production methods can further improve their eco-friendliness.

View all hydrogen cars on Lhyfe Heroes

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What is a hydrogen engine? A comprehensive guide to hydrogen-powered technology
What is a hydrogen engine? A comprehensive guide to hydrogen-powered technology

As global concerns about climate change and environmental pollution grow, the search for sustainable and eco-friendly energy sources has intensified. One such alternative is the hydrogen engine, which uses hydrogen as a clean fuel source for generating power. This article delves into the concept of hydrogen engines, their types, advantages, challenges, and applications.

Types of Hydrogen Engines

There are two primary types of hydrogen engines: hydrogen internal combustion engines (HICE) and hydrogen fuel cell engines. Each type has its unique characteristics and applications.

Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engines (HICE)

Hydrogen internal combustion engines operate similarly to traditional gasoline or diesel engines. However, instead of using fossil fuels, they combust hydrogen to generate power. These engines can be adapted from existing internal combustion engines, making them an attractive option for transitioning to a cleaner energy source.

Hydrogen Fuel Cell Engines

Hydrogen fuel cell engines use fuel cells to convert hydrogen and oxygen into electricity, which then powers an electric motor. Unlike HICE, fuel cell engines do not involve combustion, making them more efficient and environmentally friendly.

How Hydrogen Engines Work

The functioning of hydrogen engines varies depending on the type of engine being used.

Hydrogen Combustion Process

In a hydrogen internal combustion engine, hydrogen is mixed with air and compressed in the engine's cylinders. A spark plug then ignites the mixture, causing a controlled explosion that generates mechanical power. This power is used to drive the engine's pistons and ultimately power the vehicle or device.

Hydrogen Fuel Cells Process

In a hydrogen fuel cell engine, hydrogen and oxygen are introduced into the fuel cell, where an electrochemical reaction occurs. This reaction produces electricity, water, and heat. The generated electricity powers the electric motor, while the water and heat are expelled as harmless byproducts.

Advantages of Hydrogen Engines

Hydrogen engines offer several benefits over conventional internal combustion engines, including:

  1. Reduced greenhouse gas emissions: Since hydrogen engines produce water and heat as their primary byproducts, they contribute far fewer greenhouse gas emissions than fossil fuel-based engines.
  2. Improved energy efficiency: Hydrogen engines, particularly fuel cell engines, have higher energy conversion efficiencies than internal combustion engines, resulting in better overall performance and lower fuel consumption.
  3. Renewable fuel source: Hydrogen can be produced from various renewable sources, such as water electrolysis, making it a sustainable energy option.

Challenges and Limitations

Despite their advantages, hydrogen engines face some challenges and limitations, including:

  1. High costs: Developing and producing hydrogen engines can be expensive, particularly for fuel cell engines, which require costly materials like platinum as catalysts.
  2. Limited infrastructure: Hydrogen refueling stations are scarce compared to gasoline stations, making widespread adoption of hydrogen engines more challenging.
  3. Storage and transportation: Hydrogen storage and transportation present significant obstacles due to its low energy density and the need for high-pressure containers or cryogenic storage.

Applications of Hydrogen Engines

Hydrogen engines are being implemented across various sectors, including:


Automakers are increasingly exploring hydrogen engines for vehicles, such as passenger cars, buses, and trucks. Companies like Toyota, Hyundai, and Honda have introduced hydrogen-powered vehicles, while others continue to develop new models.

Stationary Power Generation

Hydrogen engines can also be used for stationary power generation, providing backup power to buildings or remote locations. They offer a clean, reliable, and efficient energy solution, particularly in areas with limited access to grid electricity.

Aerospace and Aviation

The aerospace and aviation industries are researching hydrogen engines as an alternative to conventional jet engines. Several companies are developing hydrogen-powered aircraft, aiming to reduce emissions and increase efficiency in air travel.

Future Prospects and Developments

The demand for clean and sustainable energy sources is expected to grow, and hydrogen engines will likely play a significant role. Ongoing research and development efforts aim to improve the efficiency, affordability, and infrastructure of hydrogen engines, making them more accessible and widespread.


Hydrogen engines offer a promising alternative to traditional internal combustion engines, with the potential to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions and reliance on fossil fuels. While challenges remain, continued advancements in hydrogen engine technology and infrastructure could pave the way for a more sustainable and eco-friendly future.

Frequently Asked Questions

What are the primary byproducts of hydrogen engines?

Hydrogen engines produce water and a small amount of nitrogen oxides as byproducts. Hydrogen fuel cell engines additionally produce heat.

Are hydrogen engines safe?

While hydrogen is flammable, hydrogen engines incorporate safety measures such as specialized storage tanks and sensors to minimize risks associated with their use.

How is hydrogen produced for use in hydrogen engines?

Hydrogen can be produced through various methods, including water electrolysis, natural gas reforming, and biomass gasification.

What is the difference between a hydrogen internal combustion engine and a hydrogen fuel cell engine?

A hydrogen internal combustion engine combusts hydrogen to generate power, while a hydrogen fuel cell engine uses an electrochemical reaction to produce electricity.

How efficient are hydrogen engines compared to traditional internal combustion engines?

Hydrogen fuel cell engines are generally more efficient than internal combustion engines. Hydrogen internal combustion engines have efficiencies similar to their gasoline counterparts but offer cleaner emissions.

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What is a hydrogen fuel station?
What is a hydrogen fuel station?

Hydrogen fuel stations, also known as hydrogen refueling stations or H2 stations, are facilities that store and dispense hydrogen gas for use in fuel cell vehicles. These stations play a crucial role in the adoption of hydrogen as a clean, sustainable alternative to fossil fuels for transportation. In this article, we'll explore the different types of hydrogen fuel stations, their key components, the refueling process, safety measures, and the future of hydrogen infrastructure


Basics of Hydrogen as a Fuel

Hydrogen is the most abundant element in the universe and has the potential to be a clean, renewable fuel source. When used in a fuel cell, hydrogen combines with oxygen to produce electricity, with only water and heat as byproducts. This makes it an attractive alternative to traditional gasoline or diesel fuels, which produce harmful greenhouse gas emissions.

Types of Hydrogen Fuel Stations

There are two primary types of hydrogen fuel stations: gaseous hydrogen stations and liquid hydrogen stations.

Gaseous Hydrogen Stations

Gaseous hydrogen stations store hydrogen gas under high pressure, typically at 350 to 700 bar (5,000 to 10,000 psi). These stations compress the hydrogen, which is then stored in high-pressure tanks before being dispensed to vehicles. Gaseous hydrogen stations are the most common type of hydrogen refueling station.

Liquid Hydrogen Stations

Liquid hydrogen stations store hydrogen in its liquid state at extremely low temperatures (-253°C or -423°F). These stations require more complex equipment and insulation to maintain the hydrogen at such low temperatures, but they offer advantages in terms of storage capacity and refueling speed.

Key Components of a Hydrogen Fuel Station

A hydrogen fuel station typically consists of three main components:

  1. Compressors: Compressors are used to increase the pressure of hydrogen gas, allowing it to be stored efficiently in tanks and dispensed to vehicles.
  2. Storage Tanks: Storage tanks hold hydrogen gas under pressure until it's dispensed to a vehicle. Tanks at hydrogen fuel stations can store hydrogen in either gaseous or liquid form.
  3. Dispensers: Dispensers are the interface between the fuel station and the vehicle. They provide a safe and controlled means of transferring hydrogen from the storage tanks to the vehicle's fuel cell system.

The Hydrogen Refueling Process

Refueling a hydrogen-powered vehicle is similar to refueling a gasoline-powered vehicle. The driver parks near the dispenser, connects the dispenser nozzle to the vehicle's fuel receptacle, and initiates the refueling process. The dispenser then transfers hydrogen from the station's storage tanks to the vehicle's fuel cell system. The entire process usually takes between 3 to 5 minutes, comparable to refueling with gasoline or diesel.

Safety Measures at Hydrogen Fuel Stations

Hydrogen fuel stations employ several safety measures to ensure the safe handling and storage of hydrogen. These measures include:

  1. Leak detection systems that monitor for any potential hydrogen leaks in storage tanks, dispensers, and piping.
  2. 2. Ventilation systems that prevent the build-up of hydrogen gas in the event of a leak.
  1. Emergency shut-off systems that automatically isolate the source of a leak and stop the flow of hydrogen.
  2. Fire suppression systems designed to quickly extinguish any potential fires.
  3. Training for station operators to ensure proper handling and maintenance of hydrogen fueling equipment.

Benefits of Hydrogen Fuel Stations

Hydrogen fuel stations offer several advantages over traditional gasoline and diesel stations, including:

  1. Reduced greenhouse gas emissions: Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles emit only water vapor and heat, significantly reducing transportation-related emissions.
  2. Renewable fuel source: Hydrogen can be produced from a variety of renewable sources, such as water electrolysis powered by solar or wind energy.
  3. Energy security: Hydrogen can be produced domestically, reducing dependence on imported oil.
  4. Fast refueling times: Hydrogen refueling is similar in speed to gasoline refueling, providing a more convenient experience compared to electric vehicle charging.

Challenges in Expanding Hydrogen Fuel Station Infrastructure

Despite the benefits, there are several challenges to expanding hydrogen fuel station infrastructure:

  1. High capital costs: The construction and operation of hydrogen fuel stations require significant investments in equipment and technology.
  2. Limited number of hydrogen-powered vehicles: The current market for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles is relatively small, limiting demand for hydrogen refueling stations.
  3. Competition from electric vehicles: The growth of battery electric vehicles and charging infrastructure may impact the adoption of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles.

The Future of Hydrogen Fuel Stations

The future of hydrogen fuel stations will likely depend on continued advancements in fuel cell technology, reductions in hydrogen production and storage costs, and increased demand for hydrogen-powered vehicles. As governments and private companies continue to invest in hydrogen infrastructure, the number of hydrogen fuel stations is expected to grow, further supporting the adoption of hydrogen as a sustainable transportation fuel.


Hydrogen fuel stations are a critical component in the shift towards clean, sustainable transportation. As the number of hydrogen-powered vehicles increases, the development of a robust hydrogen fueling infrastructure will be essential. By understanding the different types of hydrogen fuel stations, their key components, and the refueling process, we can better appreciate the potential for hydrogen as a viable alternative to traditional fossil fuels.


U.S. Department of Energy - Hydrogen Fueling Stations

International Energy Agency (IEA) - The Future of Hydrogen

Frequently Asked Questions

How does a hydrogen fuel station work?

A hydrogen fuel station stores and dispenses hydrogen gas for use in fuel cell vehicles. The station compresses and stores hydrogen in high-pressure tanks before transferring it to vehicles through dispensers.

What are the benefits of hydrogen fuel stations?

Hydrogen fuel stations offer reduced greenhouse gas emissions, renewable fuel sources, increased energy security, and fast refueling times compared to traditional gasoline or diesel stations.

What are the challenges in expanding hydrogen fuel station infrastructure?

Challenges include high capital costs, limited demand due to a small number of hydrogen-powered vehicles, and competition from electric vehicles.

Are hydrogen fuel stations safe?

Yes, hydrogen fuel stations employ multiple safety measures, such as leak detection systems, ventilation systems, emergency shut-off systems, fire suppression systems, and operator training.

What is the future of hydrogen fuel stations?

The future of hydrogen fuel stations depends on advances in fuel cell technology, reduced hydrogen production and storage costs, and increased demand for hydrogen-powered vehicles.

See all hydrogen refueling stations on Lhyfe Heroes

Atawey - Compact XS

McPhy - McFilling 350

McPhy - McFilling XXL

McPhy - McFilling Dual

McPhy - McFilling 20-350  (Starter Kit)

Maximator - Hydrogen Refueling Station

Sera - Hydrogen Refuelling Stations Type M

Sera - Hydrogen Refuelling Stations Type S

Sera - Hydrogen Refuelling Stations Type L

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